Αυτοάνοσα Νοσήματα

 
Αυτοάνοσες ασθένειες
Ταξινόμηση ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MeSH D001327

Ως αυτοάνοσες ασθένειες (autoimmune diseases) ορίζονται εκείνες οι ασθένεις που προκαλούνται από υπερβολική και λανθασμένη απόκριση του ανοσοποιητικού συστήματος έναντι στον ίδιο τον οργανισμό[1]. Το ανοσοποιητικό σύστημα έχει εξελιχθεί έτσι ώστε να μας προστατεύει απέναντι σε οποιοδήποτε ξένο σώμα/μόριο που μπορεί να εισβάλλει στον οργανισμό μας (π.χ. ένας ιός) και ταυτόχρονα να μην δραστηριοποιείται εναντίον μας - να μην καταστρέφει τα π.χ. νευρικά μας κύτταρα. Στην περίπτωση που παρουσιαστεί μια βλάβη ή δυσλειτουργία και το ανοσοποητικό σύστημα εκλάβει ένα μόριο του σώματος σαν ξένο, τότε θα επιχειρήσει να το εξουδετερώσει ή να το καταστρέψει (επιτελώντας απλά και μόνο τον εξελικτικό του ρόλο) προκαλώντας μικρή η μεγάλη βλάβη. Επομένως, οι αυτοάνοσες ασθένειες είναι η ακριβώς αντίθετη περίπτωση της ανοσολογικής ανεπάρκειας, η οποία προκαλείται από υπολειτουργία του ανοσοποιητικού συστήματος.

Οι αυτοάνοσες ασθένειες απαντώνται συχνά στην βιβλιογραφία και με τους όρους φλεγμονώδεις παθήσεις (inflammatory diseases), ρευματικές παθήσεις (rheumatic diseases) και αντιδράσεις υπερευαισθησίας (hypersensitivity reactions)[2].

Πηγές

  1. Αutoimmune diseases. National Library of Medicine. Ανακτήθηκε στις 23 January 2011.
  2. Janeway’s Immunobiology (7η έκδοση). Garland Science. November 2007. σελ. 583-610. ISBN 978-0-8153-4123-9.

Από τη Βικιπαίδεια, την ελεύθερη εγκυκλοπαίδεια

http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%85%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%AC%CE%BD%CE%BF%CF%83%CE%B5%CF%82_%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%B8%CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%B5%CE%B9%CE%B5%CF%82

 

ENGLISH

Autoimmune disease

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Autoimmune diseases
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 D84.9, M35.9
ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MedlinePlus 000816
MeSH D001327

Autoimmune diseases arise from an inappropriate immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in autoimmune thyroiditis) or involve a particular tissue in different places (e.g. Goodpasture's disease which may affect the basement membrane in both the lung and the kidney). The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication that decreases the immune response. A large number of autoimmune diseases are recognised.

Criteria

For a disease to be regarded as an autoimmune disease it needs to answer to Witebsky's postulates (first formulated by Ernst Witebsky and colleagues in 1957 and modified in 1994):[1][2]

  • Direct evidence from transfer of pathogenic antibody or pathogenic T cells
  • Indirect evidence based on reproduction of the autoimmune disease in experimental animals
  • Circumstantial evidence from clinical clues

Classification

It is possible to classify autoimmune diseases by corresponding type of hypersensitivity: type II, type III, or type IV. (No type of autoimmune disease mimics type I hypersensitivity.)[3]

There is continuing debate about when a disease should be considered autoimmune, leading to different criteria such as Witebsky's postulates.

Development of therapies

In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc.), which causes problems. Mitigation of inflammation by activation of anti-inflammatory genes and the suppression of inflammatory genes in immune cells is a promising way of novel therapies.[83][84][85]

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity.[86] It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.[87]

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^Witebsky E, Rose NR, Terplan K, Paine JR, Egan RW (1957). "Chronic thyroiditis and autoimmunization". J. Am. Med. Assoc. 164 (13): 1439–47. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980130015004. PMID 13448890.
  2. ^Rose NR, Bona C (September 1993). "Defining criteria for autoimmune diseases (Witebsky's postulates revisited)". Immunol. Today 14 (9): 426–30. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(93)90244-F. PMID 8216719.
  3. ^Parham, Peter (2005). The immune system. NY: Garland Science. p. 344. ISBN 0-8153-4093-1.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q rAutoimmune Diseases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  5. ^American Academy of Dermatology,  http://www.aad.org/public/publications/pamphlets/common_alopecia.html
  6. ^HtmlThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center,  http://www.mdanderson.org/patient-and-cancer-information/cancer-information/cancer-types/alopecia-areata/index.html
  7. ^J Sieper, J Braun, M Rudwaleit, A Boonen, and A Zink (2002). "Ankylosing spondylitis: an overview". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 61 (3): iii8. doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_3.iii8. PMC 1766729. PMID 12381506.
  8. ^Khan MA, Khan MK (1982). "Diagnostic Value of HLA-B27 Testing in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Reiter's Syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine 96 (1): 70–76; author reply 76. doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_3.iii8. PMID 7053711.
  9. ^"Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease, Baylor College of Medicine". 1993.
  10. ^Soundararajan S, Kikuchi Y, Kusumam J, Kaplan AP (2004). "Functional | assessment of pathogenic IgG subclass in chronic autoimmune urticaria". Journal of Allergy and Clinical 115 (4): 815–21. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.12.1120.Unknown parameter |unused_data= ignored (help)
  11. ^ a b"Autoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Health Handbook".
  12. ^"Celiac Disease".
  13. ^Meize-Grochowski R (2005). "Celiac disease: a multisystem autoimmune disorder". Gastroenterol Nurs 28 (5): 394–402; quiz 403–4. doi:10.1097/00001610-200509000-00005. PMID 16234635.
  14. ^Sollid LM, Jabri B (December 2005). "Is celiac disease an autoimmune disorder?". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (6): 595–600. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2005.09.015. PMID 16214317.
  15. ^Hyland KV, Engman DM (2006). "Further thoughts on where we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease". Trends Parasitol. 22 (3): 101–2; author reply 103. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2006.01.001. PMID 16446117.
  16. ^Agustí A, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Cosio M. (2003). "Hypothesis: does COPD have an autoimmune component?". Thorax 58 (10): 832–834. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.10.832. PMC 1746486. PMID 14514931.
  17. ^Lee SH, Goswami S, Grudo A, et al (2007). "Antielastin autoimmunity in tobacco smoking-induced emphysema". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 567–9. doi:10.1038/nm1583. PMID 17450149.
  18. ^Singal A, Janiga JJ, Bossenbroek NM, Lim HW (May 2007). "Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa): a report of improvement with infliximab and methotrexate". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 21 (5): 717. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2006.02021.x. PMID 17448013.
  19. ^ a b"Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Health Handbook".
  20. ^Ghirardello, A; Zampieri S, Tarricone E et al. (May 2006). "Clinical implications of autoantibody screening in patients with autoimmune myositis". Autoimmunity 39 (3): 217–221. doi:10.1080/08916930600622645. PMID 16769655.
  21. ^Jimenez SA, Derk CT (2004). "Following the molecular pathways toward an understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis". Ann. Intern. Med. 140 (1): 37–50. PMID 14706971.
  22. ^Toro JR, Finlay D, Dou X, Zheng SC, LeBoit PE, Connoly KM. "Detection of Type 1 Cytokines in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus". Annals of Internal Medicine 136: 1497–1501.
  23. ^Walley AJ, Chavanas S, Moffatt MF, et al. (2001). "Gene polymorphism in Netherton and common atopic disease". Nat. Genet. 29 (2): 175–8. doi:10.1038/ng728. PMID 11544479.
  24. ^Palmer CN et al. (2006). "Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis". Nature Genetics 38 (4): 441–6. doi:10.1038/ng1767. PMID 16550169.
  25. ^"'Blood chemicals link' to eczema -- Scientists have identified two blood chemicals linked to itchy eczema, offering new treatment possibilities". BBC News. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
  26. ^Gleicher N, el-Roeiy A, Confino E, Friberg J (1987). "Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?". Obstetrics and gynecology 70 (1): 115–22. PMID 3110710.
  27. ^Colbert RA (2010). "Classification of juvenile spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and beyond". Nat Rev Rheumatol. 6 (8): 477–85. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2010.103.
  28. ^Viswanath V, Myles A, Dayal R, Aggarwal A. "Levels of Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Correlate with Disease Activity in the Enthesitis-related Arthritis Category of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis". J Rheumatol.
  29. ^Myles A, Aggarwal A (March 2011). "Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 is increased in peripheral blood and synovial fluid monocytes of patients with enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis". Rheumatology (Oxford) 50 (3): 481–8. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keq362. PMID 21097451.
  30. ^Hinks A, Martin P, Flynn E, Eyre S, Packham J; Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study (CAPS); BSPAR study group, Barton A, Worthington J, Thomson W. (2001). "Subtype specific genetic associations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: ERAP1 with the enthesitis related arthritis subtype and IL23R with juvenile psoriatic arthritis". Arthritis Res Ther 13 (1): R12. doi:10.1186/ar3235. PMC 3241356. PMID 21281511.
  31. ^ a bOnline 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 178500
  32. ^Yoneda M, Fujii A, Ito A, Yokoyama H, Nakagawa H, Kuriyama M (April 2007). "High prevalence of serum autoantibodies against the amino terminal of alpha-enolase in Hashimoto's encephalopathy". J. Neuroimmunol. 185 (1–2): 195–200. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.01.018. PMID 17335908.
  33. ^"Clinical Trial: Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  34. ^Kárpáti F, Dénes L, Büttner K (1975). "[Interstitial cystitis=autoimmune cyatitis? Interstitial as a participating disease in lupus erythematosus]". Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie (in German) 68 (9): 633–9. PMID 1227191.
  35. ^Bogdanos DP, Invernizzi P, Mackay IR, Vergani D (June 2008). "Autoimmune liver serology: Current diagnostic and clinical challenges". World J. Gastroenterol. 14 (21): 3374–3387. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3374. PMC 2716592. PMID 18528935.
  36. ^"autoimmune hepatitis".
  37. ^"Medscape & eMedicine Log In".
  38. ^Ehrenstein MR (August 1999). "Antinuclear antibodies and lupus: causes and consequences". Rheumatology (Oxford) 38 (8): 691–3. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/38.8.691. PMID 10501412.
  39. ^ a b cFranceschini, F.; Cavazzana, I. (2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity 38 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1080/08916930400022954. PMID 15804706. edit
  40. ^ a b cFranceschini F, Cavazzana I (February 2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity 38 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1080/08916930400022954. PMID 15804706.
  41. ^ a b cV Goëb et al. (2007). "Clinical significance of autoantibodies recognizing Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA), SSB, calpastatin and alpha-fodrin in primary Sjögren's syndrome". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148 (2): 281–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03337.x. PMC 1868868. PMID 17286756.
  42. ^Boulassel MR, Deggouj N, Tomasi JP, Gersdorff M. (2001 Jan). Inner ear autoantibodies and their targets in patients with autoimmune inner ear diseases.| journa;=Acta Otolaryngol 12 (1). pp. 28–34.
  43. ^ a bTakehara K, Sato S (2005). "Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 44 (3): 274–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh487. PMID 15561734.
  44. ^ http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1110740"
  45. ^Kalinowska A, Losy J. (2006). "PECAM-1, a key player in neuroinflammation". Eur J Neurol 13 (12): 1284–90274. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01640.x. PMID 17116209.
  46. ^Hallmayer J, Faraco J, Lin L, et al. (June 2009). "Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the TCR alpha locus". Nat. Genet. 41 (6): 708–11. doi:10.1038/ng.372. PMC 2803042. PMID 19412176.
  47. ^"Narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, Stanford researcher says". EurekAlert. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2009-05-03. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  48. ^Carlander, B., Eliaou J.F., Billiard M. (1993). "Autoimmune hypothesis in narcolepsy". Neurophysiol. Clin. 23 (1): 15–22. doi:10.1016/S0987-7053(05)80279-5. PMID 8446070.
  49. ^Mignot, E (2001). "A commentary on the neurobiology of the hypocretin/orexin system". Neuropsychopharmacology 25 (5 Suppl): S5–13. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00316-5. PMID 11682267.
  50. ^Maret, S; Tafti M (November 2005). "Genetics of narcolepsy and other major sleep disorders" (PDF). Swiss Medical Weekly (EMH Swiss Medical Publishers Ltd.) 135 (45–46): 662–5. PMID 16453205. Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
  51. ^Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS, Hinson SR (2005). "IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel". J. Exp. Med. 202 (4): 473–477. doi:10.1084/jem.20050304. PMC 2212860. PMID 16087714.
  52. ^Pittock SJ, Weinshenker BG, Lucchinetti CF, Wingerchuk DM, Corboy JR, Lennon VA (2006). "Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression". Arch. Neurol. 63 (7): 964–968. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.7.964. PMID 16831965.
  53. ^ a bMaddison P (2006). "Neuromyotonia". Clinical Neurophysiology 117 (10): 2118–27. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.008. PMID 16843723.
  54. ^Pranzatelli, M. R., Travelstead, A. L., Tate, E. D., Allison, T. J.,Moticka, E. J., Franz, D. N., Nigro, M. A., Parke, J. T., Stumpf, D. A., Verhulst, S. J. (2004). "B- and T-cell markers in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: Immunophenotyping of CSF lymphocytes". Neurology 62 (9): 1526–1532. doi:10.1212/WNL.62.9.1526. PMID 15136676.Unknown parameter |vol= ignored (help)
  55. ^Powell A, Davis P, Jones N, Russell AS (June 2008). "Palindromic rheumatism is a common disease: comparison of new-onset palindromic rheumatism compared to new-onset rheumatoid arthritis in a 2-year cohort of patients". J. Rheumatol. 35 (6): 992–4. PMID 18412310.
  56. ^Darnell,R.B. (1996), "Onconeural antigens and the paraneoplastic neurologic disorders: at the intersection of cancer, immunity, and the brain", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 (10): 4529–4536, PMC 39311, PMID 8643438
  57. ^Peterson,K., Rosenblum, J.K., Kotanides,H., Posner,J.B. (1992), "Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. I. A clinical analysis of 55 anti-Yo antibody-positive patients", Neurology 42 (10): 1931–1937, PMID 1407575
  58. ^Albert,M.L., Austin,L.M., Darnell,R.B. (2000), "Detection and treatment of activated T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration", Ann Neurol 47 (1): 9–17, PMID 10632096
  59. ^"MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  60. ^Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA, Lacy MQ, et al. (2003). "POEMS syndrome: definitions and long-term outcome". Blood 101 (7): 2496–506. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-07-2299. PMID 12456500.
  61. ^National Psoriasis Foundation,  http://www.psoriasis.org/home/learn01.php
  62. ^National Psoriasis Foundation,  http://www.psoriasis.org/home/learn02.php
  63. ^"Relapsing Polychondritis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Health Handbook".
  64. ^Girschick HJ, Guilherme L, Inman RD, Latsch K, Rihl M, Sherer Y, Shoenfeld Y, Zeidler H, Arienti S, Doria A (2008). "Bacterial triggers and autoimmune rheumatic diseases". Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 26 (1 Suppl 48): S12–7. PMID 18570749.
  65. ^Faé KC, da Silva DD, Oshiro SE, et al. (May 2006). "Mimicry in recognition of cardiac myosin peptides by heart-intralesional T cell clones from rheumatic heart disease". J. Immunol. 176 (9): 5662–70. PMID 16622036.
  66. ^"eMedicine - Hypersensitivity Reactions, Delayed : Article by Walter Duane Hinshaw". Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
  67. ^Morell F, Levy G, Orriols R, Ferrer J, De Gracia J, Sampol G (April 2002). "Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity tests and lymphopenia as activity markers in sarcoidosis". Chest 121 (4): 1239–44. doi:10.1378/chest.121.4.1239. PMID 11948059.
  68. ^Grunewald J, Eklund A, Olerup O (March 2004). "Human leukocyte antigen class I alleles and the disease course in sarcoidosis patients". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 169 (6): 696–702. doi:10.1164/rccm.200303-459OC. PMID 14656748.
  69. ^Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H, et al (2006). "Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers". The American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.521. PMID 16513876.
  70. ^Jones AL, Mowry BJ, Pender MP, Greer JM (2005). "Immune dysregulation and self-reactivity in schizophrenia: do some cases of schizophrenia have an autoimmune basis?". Immunol. Cell Biol. 83 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01305.x. PMID 15661036.
  71. ^Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006). "Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited". J. Autoimmun. 27 (2): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2006.07.006. PMID 16997531.
  72. ^de Carmo Silva R, Kater CE, Dib SA, et al (February 2000). "Autoantibodies against recombinant human steroidogenic enzymes 21-hydroxylase, side-chain cleavage and 17alpha-hydroxylase in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type III". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 142 (2): 187–94. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1420187. PMID 10664529. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  73. ^De Benedetti F, Meazza C, Vivarelli M, et al. (May 2003). "Functional and prognostic relevance of the -173 polymorphism of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis". Arthritis Rheum. 48 (5): 1398–407. doi:10.1002/art.10882. PMID 12746913.
  74. ^Murinson BB (2004). "Stiff-person syndrome". Neurologist 10 (3): 131–7. doi:10.1097/01.nrl.0000126587.37087.1a. PMID 15140273.
  75. ^J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8 (12), December 1997: 1971–6, PMID 9402102  http://jasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9402102 |url= missing title (help)
  76. ^Moake JL (2004). "von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS-13, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 4–14. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.003. PMID 14727254.
  77. ^Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kiefel V, Grubert A, Kroll H, Weisheit M, Schmidt S et al. (1989). "348 cases of fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia". Lancet 1 (8634): 363–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)91733-9. PMID 2563515.
  78. ^Wisnieski JJ, Naff GB (September 1989). "Serum IgG antibodies to C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome". Arthritis Rheum 32 (9): 1119–27. doi:10.1002/anr.1780320910. PMID 2528353.
  79. ^"Questions and Answers about Vitiligo". Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  80. ^"A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Journal Watch Dermatology". Archived from the original on 3 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  81. ^Sánchez-Cano D, Callejas-Rubio JL, Ortego-Centeno N (April 2008). "Effect of rituximab on refractory Wegener granulomatosis with predominant granulomatous disease". J Clin Rheumatol 14 (2): 92–3. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e31816b4487. PMID 18391678.
  82. ^Mukundan L, Odegaard JI, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mwangi JW, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Goh YP, Eagle AR, Dunn SE et al. (Nov 2009). "PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance". Nat Med 15 (11): 1266–72.
  83. ^Roszer T, Menéndez-Gutiérrez MP, Lefterova MI, Alameda D, Núñez V, Lazar MA, Fischer T, Ricote M (Jan 2011). "Autoimmune kidney disease and impaired engulfment of apoptotic cells in mice with macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma or retinoid X receptor alpha deficiency". J Immunol 186 (1): 621–31.
  84. ^Singh RP, Waldron RT, Hahn BH. (2011) Genes, tolerance and systemic autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2011 Nov 30.
  85. ^National Institutes of Health
  86. ^Noel R. Rose and Ian R. MacKay, "The Autoimmune Diseases" fourth edition
  87. ^  http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/BS_HSAD/description#description

 

Πηγ'η http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_disease

Share